New Accessibility Work On MuseScore

After a period of relative inactivity, I am pleased to announce that accessibility work on MuseScore is resuming.

Divya Raghunathan is currently working on this project as part of Google Summer of Code.  So far she has already implemented a new pair of navigation commands that make it possible to access virtually all symbols in a score via keyboard.  Next up is a way to navigate the palettes by keyboard, which will finally enable blind users to to create a full range of scores, as opposed to using MuseScore primarily just as a score reader.

To learn more about this work, see her blog at  Feel free to comment and provide feedback!


MuseScore 2.0 Beta 1 released, with accessible score reading support

As I related in a previous article, we have been working on making MuseScore accessible.  It is a large project as MuseScore was never designed with accessibility in mind, and the Qt framework used by MuseScore has a number of issues that make it difficult to produce fully accessible applications of any complexity.  Plus of course, simply deciding how to present standard music notation in an accessible way is a difficult problem in itself.

However, as of yesterday, the MuseScore 2.0 Beta 1 release is available, and the first round of accessibility support is in!  It has been tested with NVDA on Windows and works well with that.  There are mixed reports using Jaws, VoiceOver (Mac), and Orca (Linux).  We have Andrei Tuicu – a Romanian student working through the Google Summer of Code – to thank for the new accessibility features.  I (Marc Sabatella) served as his mentor for the project.

So far, all that is fully accessible is score reading functionality – the ability to load a score and navigate through it while hearing the contents of the score read aloud.  The basic menu commands should be self-explanatory, although there are still some glitches with how the menus read due to what appear to be Qt issues.  It seems no worse than many other programs, though.  You can also use the File / Export menu to convert to other formats, hit Space to listen to play back, or hit Tab to access the program toolbar.

With a score loaded, the right and left cursor keys move forward and backwards through the score a note at a time, and the screenreader should read the notes aloud (pitch, duration, etc).  In addition, when using the cursor keys with Ctrl+Alt+Shift, it will move not just note by note, but will also include the clefs, key signatures, time signatures, and barlines.  Information about articulations, dynamic markings, lyrics, and so forth are read along with the notes they are attached to.

The MuseScore team welcomes feedback on the new accessibility of MuseScore 2.0 Beta 1.  The best way to do that is to post a thread to their Technology Preview forum.

We all realize, of course, the score reading is only part of the battle.  Next up will be to make score creation and editing accessible.  Actually, it is partially accessible already, but many important markings – key signatures – will be difficult or impossible to create.  Still, when MuseScore first starts up, there is a blank 32-bar score already loaded (key of C, 4/4) and you should be able to start typing in notes at least.  Press “N” to enter note input mode, then select a duration using the number keys on your keyboard (3-7 are sixteenth note through whole note), then type a letter name for pitch.  There is of course a lot more to note entry than this, and again, only some of it will work without use of the mouse, but that should get you started and give you an idea of the potential.

Accessibility work to begin on MuseScore

I am thrilled to report that Andrei Tuicu has been selected to participate in the Google Summer of Code  and will be working on MuseScore Accessibility!  That means Google will pay Andrei for the summer to work on this project, with guidance from Marc Sabatella.  We have others who have volunteered their time to help out as well.  This is a fantastic kickstart for the project, and we hope the work will continue past the summer (albeit without Google’s financial support).

A truly accessible free and open source notation program now appears to be on the horizon.  Further work will be required to integrate Braille conversion and other tools to fulfill all the goals of the Accessible Music Notation Project, but this will surely be the cornerstone of such efforts.

MuseScore Accepted for Google Summer of Code

MuseScore – the open source notation program – has been selected by Google as one of the mentoring organizations to participate in the Google Summer of Code 2014. In this program, students are be paid to work on an open source project. Students can choose what they want aspect of the project to work on, but a list of sample ideas is provided by the mentoring organization Improving accessibility is the #1 suggestion on the short list offered by MuseScore in their list of ideas).

Having the leading open source notation program be truly accessible would be a major breakthrough for blind musicians – particularly composers and arrangers. As a technical contributor to MuseScore myself, I am familiar enough with the code to have a pretty good sense of what is involved and am willing to serve as a mentor. I have already identified a list of specific issues to address in making MuseScore accessible. If others have other issues they would like to see added to this list, let me know.

So if there are any students out there interested in improving the accessibility of MuseScore, this would be a perfect time to get involved! Google is accepting student applications next month. For more information, see the Google Summer of Code web site. Feel free to contact me specifically about this, or join the chat on the #musescore channel on the IRC network freenode.

Please spread the word to anyone you think might be interested!

Google Summer of Code

I’ve been very busy lately helping with the MuseScore 2.0 release, which is moving along but still not what I’d call “imminent”.  So not much activity on the accessibility front I’m afraid.

However, one bit of news to report: the annual Google Summer of Code is now accepting applications for mentoring organizations.  At some point, I could imagine establishing the Accessible Music Notation Project itself as a candidate, but knowing what I know about the process, I can safely say we’re nowhere near ready.  On the other hand, MuseScore successfully participated last year, and is applying again this year.  I have contributed an accessbility proposal that I hope a student chooses if MuseScore is accepted as mentoring organization:

The basic idea if it all works out is that student would be paid by Google to work on this project.  Doing everything required to make MuseScore fully accessible is beyond the scope of what one student could get done in one summer, but I do think there couldf be some significant impact.  So I hope MuseScore is accepted and that a student selects this proposal to work on!

If anyone else interested in issues of accessibility and music notation would like to apply to become a mentoring organization, you have until February 14 to get your application in.  Students interested in getting paid to do this work, applications are accepted starting March 10.

Here is the site for the Google Summer of Code:

Kickstarter Campaign to Produce Braille Scores from MuseScore

The MuseScore folks are proposing a very interesting project to convert scores created in their notation program into Braille.  They are currently using Kickstarter to try to fund this work.  I have been involved with MuseScore for some time now, and I have every confidence that they will be able to achieve what they are setting out to do here.  It’s an extremely exciting possibility to consider.  MuseScore is the leading free and open source notation program, and there are thousands upon thousands of scores produced with it that could be made available in Braille format.

The initial stage of the proposal involves producing a professionally produced and freely available standard print edition and recording of Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier using MuseScore.  That much has already been funded.  The next stage will be to produce a Braille edition of that work, and then the next stage will be to develop, test, and release a tool to convert other MuseScore files to Braille, using open source

Here is a link to the MuseScore blog post announcing the campaign:

And here is a link to the Kickstarter campaign itself:

Please consider supporting this effort!

ABC For Blind Musicians

ABC is one of the oldest, most popular, and best supported text-based music notation languages around.  It is quite possible for blind musicians to create scores in ABC using an ordinary text editor and have them rendered in standard notation and played via MIDI just as one might do with full-fledged notation software.

Information on ABC

Here are some links with more information about ABC itself:

  • ABC Notation – this is the official home of ABC
  • ABC Plus – this site has much useful information on ABC and the various tools available, including the best documentation on the language that I have seen.  That document, entitled Making Music with ABC Plus, is provided as a PDF within a ZIP file (along with some demonstration files).

I can get you started in just a couple of minutes, though.  A tune in ABC starts off with a few lines called the header, followed by the actual notes.  The header looks like this:


The first line X:1 is how software recognizes this is the start of an ABC file.  You can use any number you want, and in fact you can have several different tunes in one file, each starting with X: and a number.  The M: line specifies a meter (time signature) of 4/4, and the K: line specifies a key signature of E flat.  You can also add a line starting with T: to specify a title, with C: to specify the composer, Q: to specify tempo, etc. Just be sure to have the K: field last in the header.

Note that ABC is very case sensitive. The header fields listed above are all upper case letter followed by colons. ABC is also very sensitive to blank lines and somewhat sensitive to spaces. Blank lines are used to end a tune, so you can have several tunes in one file. Spaces can generally be included anywhere, but spaces between individual notes are used to control beaming, so be careful.

With the header out of the way, you can start typing your notes.  A note is typed as a pitch followed by a duration as follows:

For pitch, use upper case letters for the octave from middle C up, lower case letter for the octave above that.  Append apostrophes for octaves higher than that (as in f’ for the F on the top line of the treble clef staff), or commas for octaves lower than middle C (as in A, for the A two ledger lines below the treble clef staff).  You can precede a letter with an underscore for a flat (as in _D for D flat) or with a carat for a sharp (as in ^F for F sharp).  But you only need to do this for accidentals – when the flat or sharp is not in the key signature.  Oh, and an equal sign is a natural, (as in =B for a B natural, when in a key where it would normally be flat).  A lower case z is a rest.

For duration, a pitch by itself (as in C) is an eighth note.  Follow the pitch with a 2 (as in C2) for a quarter note, since a quarter note is two eighths long.  Similarly, C4 for a half note, C6 for a dotted half, etc.  Tie notes using a dash, (as in D4 – D for a half note tied to an eighth).

The last thing you need to know in order to make your first song is how to make bar lines.  A vertical bar character makes a bar line, two of them in a row makes a double bar, and a vertical bar followed by a right bracket makes the special “ending” double bar. By default, most ABC programs will obey the line breaks in your input. So if you enter four measures then hit Enter/Return and start entering more music, those first four measures will appear as one line of standard notation, and then a new line will be started.

ABC supports a ton more than this – really, just about everything you can do in standard notation, you can do in ABC.  You can read the ABC Plus documentation for all the gory details.  But simple things really are as simple as I just described it, and the above is probably enough to get you through most melodic dictation exercises.

As an example of a full song in ABC, here is Mary Had A Little Lamb in the key of Bb:

T:Mary Had A Little Lamb
D2 C2 B,2 C2 | D2 D2 D4 | C2 C2 C4 | D2 F2 F4 |
D2 C2 B,2 C2  | D2 D2 D2 D2 | C2 C2 D2 C2 | B,8 |]

Using EasyABC

The tool of choice for working with ABC, at least among sighted users, is EasyABC.  This is a text editor with built-in support for various other utilities that can do interesting things with ABC files, such as convert to standard notation, play via MIDI, etc.  It actually displays your ABC as standard notation in a separate pane of the window as you type, not that this particular feature is of much use to blind musicians.  But the software does appear to be reasonably accessible – it works well with screenreaders and provides keyboard control for its most important functionality.

When you install EasyABC, it comes with everything you need except for ghostscript, which you need to install separately in order to get PDF export of scores if you do not have it already.  There is some additional setup you will probably want to perform before you start to use EasyABC.  There has some automatic typing assistance turned on that silently inserts barlines and does other things you probably don’t really want.  I would start by going to Settings / ABC typing assistance / Active and making sure it is turned off.  This setting is remembered, so you only need to do it once.

I say EasyABC seems to reasonably accessible, but it’s not necessarily obvious how it is laid out or to use it.  I imagine that’s true of a lot of programs – it helps to know what is going on.  So here’s some things to know to get started.

When you fire up EasyABC, your cursor is in an edit pane where you can start typing ABC.  An ABC file has to start with an “X” and a “K” field, so first thing you probably want to do is type:


(or whatever meter and key you want instead of 4/4 and C).  Then you can type the actual music.  As you type, the results are automatically fed to abcm2ps and converted to standard notation which is displayed in another pane.  There is a third pane that contains a list of your open files, and of the tunes defined in each (ABC lets you define multiple tunes per file).  If there is a way to transfer focus to either of those other panes via keyboard, I haven’t found it.  I think you can do what you need without that, though.

Pressing F6 will play the current score, but only if it is free from errors. If you press F6 and nothing happens (give it a couple of seconds as the playback often lags behind), then you probably have a syntax error somewhere

Everything else you need is accessed through menus.

When you want to generate a PDF of your score, use File / Export Selected / PDF (which exports the current score), but as mentioned this only works if you’ve previously installed and configured ghostscript.  Since the notation is being displayed automatically in another window, though, you may find for classroom use (such as melodic dictation exercises) you don’t need to bother generating PDF.

You can also export a score to MusicXML which can then be imported into Finale, Sibelius, MuseScore, Lime Aloud, etc.

One especially nice thing about ABC and how it works with EasyABC is that you can have several “tunes” per file, and as you navigate through them, EasyABC automatically keeps track of the current tune.  So you can put several exercises in one file, like this:

% This is a C major scale
C D E F G A B c |

% This is a G major scale
G A B c d e ^f g |

As you move your edit cursor through the file, only the current tune will be displaying on screen in standard notation.  So you can show your teacher your answers one at a time that way.  Also, if you hit F6 to hear the playback, that also plays back the current tune only.  So you don’t have to always hear your entire file.

Using ABCexplorer

If EasyABC ends up not being your style for whatever reason, there is at least one other all-in-one program you may wish to try, at least one Windows.  Like EasyABC, ABCexplorer is primarily a text editor but with built in support for the various tools that can work with ABC.  It requires you to set a couple of options before getting started, and even then it’s use model is a bit more complex than EasyABC, but it might be a better alternative for Windows users who for whatever reason have trouble with EasyABC.

For the initial setup, hit Enter/OK if necessary to get past the opening splash screen.  Then open the Options dialog – Alt+P.  The first tab is “Directories and files”.  You need to turn off the “Save a convivial name” option on that tap.  Then Ctrl+Enter a few times to reach the “Miscellaneous” tab.  There, turn on the “Select the first tune at file opening”, and you may also want to turn off the “Tip of the day” startup screen.

Once set up in this fashion, it is “fairly” accessible.  After opening the program, you can hit Ctrl+F to start a new file followed by Ctrl+N to start a new tune within that file.  At that point, you can start typing ABC.  ABCexplorer actually starts a tune for you, with the standard header already filled in (time signature 4/4, etc), so you will really start by browsing through what’s been filled in for you and editing it as necessary.  Then add your actual ABC to the end.  You can hear playback at any time via Ctrl+P.  It takes a while to start playback, and then it loops when done, so hit Ctrl+P again to stop playback.  You can also use Alt+Left and Alt+Right to control the tempo, and Alt+Up and Alt+Down to control volume.

When are done editing, you need to hit F5 to exit the editor (F5 again puts you back in the editor).  Once out of the editor, the rest of the menus become available, and they are pretty straightforward: File / Save, File / Export, etc.  After opening a file, you will need to hit F5 to actually edit it.  While navigating the main interface, Tab does not always go where you would want, and there are a number of controls that are probably not keyboard-accessible at all.  If you get lost in the interface, hitting F5 should usually return you to a good place: either in the editor, or take out of the editor and ready to access the menus so you can try again.  It’s definitely not ideal.  On the other hand, it does work, and I am extremely grateful to the developer for having added some accessible features specifically upon my request.

Launching The Accessible Music Notation Project

My name is Marc Sabatella, and I am a jazz pianist, composer, and educator based in Denver, Colorado, USA. I became interested in accessibility issues when a blind student took my Jazz Theory & Aural Skills class a few years ago and we had to find ways of communicating in notated music. I was shocked to discover there were so few tools available suitable for our purposes. Over the course of the year we managed to pull together some existing utilities, plus I wrote some of my own, and we came up with a system that worked well enough for us. But it was very much blazing our own trail, and it’s still not a well-marked one. My hope now is to expand on this earlier work and develop a suite of tools to solve the various problems that come up when a blind student needs to read and write notated music.